Wave Examples

Below are a few wave examples of power quality issues that we have captured in a few of our Power Quality sessions. Today’s electronics are more susceptible to damage resulting in a shortened life span as well as misoperation of equipment. Depending on your equipment’s needs and your electrical environment we can advise on mitigation applications to keep your system running smooth.

Images for reference only – click to enlarge image

Wave Examples Simple-Waveforms

Example A: Single Phase

This wave example shows a good clean voltage and current (sinusoidal) waveform on 1 phase of the electrical environment.

Wave Examples Phase-Waveforms

Example B: 3 Phase

For comparison, this is the same reading as example A only we have expanded to all phases of the typical 3 phase environment. Having a balanced load over all 3 phases in your system is desirable. In the bottom graph (amps) you will note that all phases are within 10% of each other which is optimum.

Wave Examples Electronic Load Differences.

Example C: Electronic Load Differences.

With today’s electronics influences, current draws are no longer sinusoidal as shown in the lower graph section. This leads to harmonics in your system. You can also see the punch down effect this has on the voltage waveforms as noted in the upper graph section.

Wave Examples Phase Interruption

Example D: Phase Interruption

This is a utility phase interruption. These only last a few cycles and are more common in rural areas. If this is problematic in your area you may need to protect your systems from this.

Wave Examples Short-Duration-Drop-out

Example E: Short Duration Phase Drop Out – Beginning

This wave example shows the start of a 2 second utility interruption. These interruptions will affect systems differently.

Wave Examples Drop-Out-Re-Stablizing

Example F: Short Duration Phase Drop Out – End

This examples continues to follow the sinewaves of example E, as the utility interruption corrects and stabilizes about 2 seconds later. Damages typically occur during the end of these interruptions, as shown in the lower amps graph taking a hard hit (current surge) to the system.

Wave Examples Worn-Contactor

Example G: Worn Out Contactor.

In review of the readings we collected here we could see that when a piece of equipment was starting it was affecting the voltages of all 3 phases. A worn out contactor was needed to be replaced.

Wave Examples Samples-of-Transients

Example H: Transient Sample

Here is a sample of a transient that we recorded. These transients are very common and can be generated externally from your facility or within.